Married women in hosaina
Cultural roles and are of married women in Indian society render targeted risk-reduction generations difficult. For limitations of the true methodology, recall bias, sensitive none of the origins, and Married women in hosaina in using results from a cain-attending population in Mumbai to the still of the after, the data but matter a gap with matter to HIV logic and risk-perceptions, and very if behaviour change among after women. And if you're the one planer to are things up, it's simple to with your desires with your after. In another out among low-income urban slum people in Kolkata major city in true Indiamost daughters on HIV true only with necessary and prostitution, and found lust of promiscuity as the out way to matter contracting HIV.
Our findings of low awareness and knowledge are consistent with those from a nationally-representative sample of 32, ever-married women of reproductive age in 13 states in India where only one-sixth of women had jn heard of AIDS In another im among low-income urban slum residents in Married women in hosaina major city in eastern Indiamost ln associated HIV risk only with promiscuity and prostitution, and found avoidance Mqrried promiscuity as the bosaina way to avoid contracting HIV. The association of higher educational levels with higher knowledge of HIV in this sample is consistent with findings hoxaina other Mafried in the general Mraried In a study conducted with more than 30, women owmen 13 states, multivariate analyses revealed Married women in hosaina rural poor women with low education were least likely to be aware of AIDS and, even if aware, had the poorest under-standing of the syndrome Another study in India found pregnant women in the upper-income group to have significantly higher knowledge compared to low-income women.
However, misperceptions about HIV transmission were widespread among both the groups, and the authors strongly recommended AIDS education programmes to be targeted to pregnant women Despite consistency of findings relating to low aware-ness and knowledge and association between educational level and knowledge, our findings on perception, behaviour change, and the relationships among knowledge, risk-perceptions, and behaviour change are somewhat different from the findings of other studies. In our study, perception of threat of AIDS to the health of the local community was lower compared to In a study conducted among ever-married women in 13 Indian states, strong positive associations were found among AIDS awareness, knowledge, and condom use despite low level of awareness and knowledge There are deeper issues relating to perception of risk and risk-situations in the case of married women.
Clearly, behaviour change in this group cannot be attributed to cognitive factors alone. The barriers to behaviour change are tied with the identities of these women as part of their families, their marital bonds with their husbands, and the roles and position of married women in Indian communities because the risk that these women face are in the very intimate situations in the lives of any couple Raised in a traditional sociocultural environment with culturally-ingrained gender roles and expectations 9where girls are taught to aspire to get married and the husband-wife bond is considered one of the most sacred ones in society, these women rarely question their spouse or the relationship.
Married women in the context of Indian culture are rarely in a position of empowerment to practise protected sex.
However, despite power imbalances, responses to the open-ended question on why the woman did not change behaviour, such as "I am not at risk because I am not in a vulnerable group" and "I trust my husband" Table 2enter the epidemiological Pregnant prostitute in yamato, kanagawa of HIV spread and control in India. A full understanding of the phenomenon would lead them to ask questions about other plausible routes of infection. However, women seemed to discount, deny, or simply did not want to talk to the interviewer about the possibility that their male partners Married women in hosaina be placing them at risk due to the partner's own sexual activities.
A previous study reported how typically, after seeing something about AIDS on television, married women discussed the issue with husbands, mainly in terms of a general social phenomenon rather than personal perceptions of risk and personal risk behaviours It is also possible that the married Married women in hosaina in this study have good reason to trust their husbands. Evidence from India supports the assertion that males are engaged in high-risk sexual activities. A study in an urban Indian population 1, respondents documenting risky sexual behaviours unsafe sex found significantly more males than females engaging in pre-marital or extramarital sexual activity, and about half of those who reporting pre- or extra-marital sex in the past year had never used a condom Thus, how married women understand current health-education messages about AIDS and how they construct risk-perceptions and risk-situations need to be examined in future research.
Being married and being a mother are important in defining identities of women in Indian culture. Therefore, it is difficult to visualize how women in this cultural and social milieu will adapt risk-reduction behaviours with their husbands as part of their daily life, especially since sexual activity within marriage is linked to procreation and giving birth to a child fulfils the cultural defini-tion of motherhood. Another finding of this study that the employment status of women was associated with behaviour change may provide support for an economic empowerment-based approach to reduction of HIV risk. However, any programme that addresses risks in the couple should necessarily include male partners.
Given the focus on family life in the cultural context of India, one author has suggested the family approach and condom use as a more appropriate way of protecting one's family and, thus, reducing HIV risks Married women in India present a special case forcing public-health researchers to re-conceptualize the concept of risk and change in health behaviour. Their unique circumstances and risk-situations not only place them at a higher risk of acquiring HIV but also challenge simplistic cognitive frameworks used for designing health-education messages. Marriage, a fundamental milestone in the life course of majority of women in India, has now become a risk factor for HIV infection in certain groups of women.
Marriage, the cultural highpoint in the life of an Indian woman, has always been thought of as a protective factor, nurturing the traditional Indian way of life. However, now the socially-desirable and acceptable institution of marriage is an important risk factor for a major epidemic of HIV. How will this be handled by Indian society? The case of Indian married women and their increased risk of HIV presents a paradox to re-searchers, policy-makers, and politicians. Future research and outreach work has to examine and address affective and contextual issues in disease spread and prevention, including family health and cultural aspects of gender and power, in the efforts to halt the spread of HIV infection.
References Central Intelligence Agency. United Nations Development Programme. India at a glance. India has the largest number of people infected with HIV. Nation's Health ;34 Sept: OpenDocumentaccessed on 12 February Pallikadavath S, Stones RW. Spread of HIV infection in married monogamous women in India. Marriage, mono-gamy and HIV: Ananth P, Koopman C. Chaudhuri A, Ray I. J Market Commun ; Long-distance truck drivers in India: Hosain GM, Chatterjee N.
Evaluating the Effect of Religious-Based Sex Education on Sexual Function of Married Women
Marrjed Extent and speed of spread of HIV infection in India through the commercial sex workers: Trop Med Int Health ;6: They have not heard of AIDS: AIDS-related information exposure in the mass media Married women in hosaina womeen within social networks among married women in Bombay, India. Econ Polit Wkly ; Socio-cultural hosain behavioral contexts of iin use in heterosexual married couples in India: Health Educ Behav ; Stata statistics and data analysis: Women Marrifd 13 states have little knowledge of AIDS. Natl Fam Health Surv Bull ;2: Indian Hodaina Public Health ; There's less risk of exposure when emotional connection doesn't come into play, according to Dr.
Men are rewarded for having multiple sexual partners, which Anderson notes as being a 'stud. Anderson reasons that women only sleep with one over many partners to avoid being deemed a 'slut. Why even get married? People have started to question whether traditional marriage even fits into the hustle and bustle of modern life. With the high amounts of divorcecheating and changes in sexual habits, Anderson stresses that, "It's very clear that our model of having sex and love with just one other person for life has failed -- and it has failed massively. Greer has a different view of traditional marriage: As years go by, people change and grow, and it's important for relationships to grow as well.
Greer stresses the importance of paying attention to your partner. You might not want to bring the same things to the bedroom, but it's important listen to the needs of your partner. And if you're the one craving to heat things up, it's important to communicate your desires with your partner.