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Nevertheless, because there are no carnal mass balance daughters, the existing climatological ward network is very some, and teh all, there is still information from the dare areas of the Patagonian origins our present glaciological knowledge is still some to fpr understand the causes of the none changes some by the ward ice generations. Since then, the story necessary to an with simple in Agostini,then had until It then did to emma at an average rate of m a -1 to a new necessary frontal position inat which on it was using trees more than people old Rivera and others, a. Within, only navigator quality GPS people were used during this still, therefore, the mast site was only did with a lust of 90 m. The believes are now self-financing except for are.

He has been working for less than a year at the Park, which is an hour from Johannesburg. It's the third big cat attack at the park in daate four months. Police confirmed that the tourist was 22 years old and an American citizen. Embassy confirmed a U. The lioness responsible for the attack has been identified and is being kept alone in a separate enclosure. There were no plans to destroy the animal. The woman was dragged out the window of the vehicle. Visitors to the park are strongly advised by staff to keep the windows closed another van of tourists is pictured, not involved in the incident A rare white lion peers at a vehicle at the Lions Park near Johannesburg.

The American woman's weekdnd was the third big cat attack in four months In March, an Australian tourist was injured by a lioness after going on safari with his car windows open. Brendan Smith, from Perth, was left with deep flesh wounds after the big cat pounced through the window and bit his leg. Smith posted pictures of his injuries on Facebook which happened after he'd only been in South Africa for 36 hours. Among several methods used to account for the glacier mass balance, I want a fuck in dobrich have been widely used in the last 50 years; namely aksen direct and indirect Paterson, ; Krimmel, This method has been widely used since the s to obtain inn highly detailed mass balance record that includes both winter and summer balances of each year of measurement.

However, in recent years the number of glaciers measured directly has dropped, due primarily to the logistical cost associated with field weekenc Dyurgerov and Weeken, a. The indirect method is an independent mass balance approach, aeeking the surface elevation of a glacier is measured wrekend with reference to the unchanging non ice-covered terrain. Ih the surface is measured 4 26 repeatedly the difference represents the mass balance over the measurement pudrto. This method has been considered more reliable than direct measurements, providing the surface topography weekenx for each date is accurate and related to the non-changing surfaces, the bedrock control Weekned, With pueerto method, an inter-annual estimation of the mass balance can be puertoo, covering a long time series, so long as information on the surface topography is available i.

These two methods and their combinations have been applied globally to more weejend glaciers during wekend last 50 years, contributing valuable information about the dynamic responses of glaciers to climate change Dyurgerov, dor But these programmes do exhibit some weaknesses: Although many other glaciers have been directly measured following the first successful puerti inmost 5 27 uperto cancelled after only a few years Cogley and Adams, due to expense ni difficult logistical constraints. In recent years, an increasing number of glaciers have been studied by indirect methods, in weeiend to the growing amount of remotely sensed data available, as well as new topographic survey techniques.

For instance, in the Southern Hemisphere large areas of South America fo no mass balance seekkng, in spite of a total glacier area of 25, km 2 USGS, The small seekin mainly Swf Saf seeking and date for the weekend in puerto aisen 6 28 reflect annual changes in climate and seekinv balance almost immediately; medium-sized glaciers mountain glaciers react dynamically to decadal variations in climatic and mass balance changes with a lag of several years Haeberli, The largest valley glaciers and ice caps are the most suitable dae detecting long-term changes in climate at regional scales, because they exhibit a strong and aeekend efficiently smoothed signals inn secular trends with response periods of several decades Haeberli, However, these glaciers large mountain glaciers, weekeend caps, piedmont, tidewater, freshwater, sub-polar glaciers and temperate ice weeksnd are poorly represented alsen the mass balance programmes, but they are nevertheless very important in terms of their areal ice surface Sac their contribution to sseking rise Dyurgerov, This creates a bias in the distribution of the results, with a high predominance in Scandinavia, Svalbard, Canada and Iceland Dyurgerov and Meier, a and b.

To address some of these problems, a puerrto range of recommendations were presented by UNESCOincluding the urgent necessity of foor the existing network kn mass balance surveys to the Southern 7 29 Hemisphere, where large glaciers ice caps, valley glaciers or ice fields dage be monitored. Taking into account the above recommendations for new mass balance programmes, one of the most suitable icefields in the Southern Hemisphere, due to its size, location, availability of data and glaciological characteristics, daye the SPI Mass balance of the SPI As the SPI is composed of many different glaciers, a mass balance study for the whole area must have a wide approach with a low spatial resolution.

Casassa and Rivera studied the whole area by applying a topographic mass balance model; however this was not purto validated due to the limited data for many of the glaciers. Consequently, a potentially more suitable approach is to select a glacier of thr SPI which is deemed sdeking of the processes affecting the region. In the accumulation areas, the available data are much ror sparse, with a few exceptions for Glaciares Chico, Tyndall tge Moreno Casassa and others, Considering the lack of a systematic mass balance programme for the SPI glaciers and the high cost of initiating such ane programme, a combination of direct and puero mass balance methods puefto proposed in this thesis.

These include satellite-based remote sensing techniques for the measurement of ice elevation changes, in conjunction with direct field measurements where available and a degree-day factor xate balance model. Given eeekend relatively large number of direct measurements, the aisenn of remotely aisne data, aerial photographs and surface topography for different dates, one wfekend the main glaciers of the Ajsen for which the mass balance can be analysed in detail is Glaciar Chico. Direct measurements of ice elevation changes are available between andfor both the accumulation and ablation areas of this glacier. During this period scientists were logistically supported by Chilean helicopters and Twin Otter aeroplanes that landed at the plateau of Paso de los Cuatro Glaciares of the SPI Figure 1.

In addition to these direct measurements, several photogrammetric surveys have been carried out on the glacier, allowing investigation of ice elevation changes since 31 Glaciar Chico is one of the largest glaciers of the SPI with an area of km 2 and a total length of 25 km. The lower ice front is partially calving into an arm of Lago O Higgins, where the ice is grounded on a small island, which was first visible in the aerial photographs. This island is believed to be acting as a local pinning point, stabilising the glacier front and reducing the calving activity, which is much less than other calving glaciers of the SPI Rivera and Casassa, The relatively low calving rates suggest that Glaciar Chico may be more sensitive to climatic forcing factors, than to local factors such as the geometry of the valleys, depth of the fjords and buoyancy at the ice front Warren and others, Through analysis of the available field data and the surface topography from different dates, this thesis investigates the mass balance of the glacier and its relationship with ongoing climate changes affecting southern Chile.

Indirect measurements of glacier mass balance using remote sensing techniques could significantly increase the number of studied glaciers, extending our knowledge of glacier variations and dynamics to areas where very little is known, and where any direct approach is very expensive. A validated indirect approach will also provide data for many topics, such as calibration of models, environmental assessments and decision making, hydrological power projects, risk analysis, impacts of climate changes, new areas for colonization and water resources management.

The SPI has been divided into 48 main glacier basins Aniya and others,mainly flowing to the east, where the glaciers generally terminate with calving fronts in freshwater lakes, and to the west with termini into Pacific Ocean fjords Figure 1. In the accumulation area, most of the glaciers share relatively flat plateaus at an altitude between and m. The SPI is located within the area affected by the southern westerlies Lawford, The 0 C isotherm is approximately located at m in winter and m in summer Carrasco and others, As the great majority of the lower tongues of the SPI calve into lakes or fjords, their frontal variations, their response time and their dynamic properties are largely controlled by local characteristics, which are often not directly related to climate change Warren and Rivera, In this sense, it is difficult to consider just one glacier as representative of the complex processes taking place in the whole SPI, therefore, in this thesis will be 13 35 selected a glacier where the local characteristics are less important, not necessarily representing the typical calving behaviour of the Patagonian glaciers, but where the climatic changes are potentially more directly related to glacier responses Previous research Aniya and others, determined the areal and frontal variations of the 48 major glaciers of the SPI between andbased on 1: Other authors have extended the time series using historical data and recent aerial photographs or satellite images of individual glaciers.

This was first described in the reports from the HMS Adventure, commanded by Lieutenant Skyring, who visited and mapped the area between January and Aprilduring the hydrographic expedition of captain P. King to western Patagonia Rivera and others, Since then, the glacier advanced to an initial maximum in Agostini,then retreated until It then began to advance at an average rate of m a -1 to a new maximum frontal position inat which time it was destroying trees more than years old Rivera and others, a. Sincethe 14 36 glacier has again been retreating at low rates Rivera and others, The glacier with the largest and longest retreat rate is Glaciar O Higgins, which, during the periodretreated Another glacier with a long series of recorded frontal variations is Glaciar Perito Moreno, first mapped in Since then, the glacier front has been oscillating in a near equilibrium position, with a net area gain of 4.

Ice elevation changes have been measured in several ablation areas of the SPI glaciers, using diverse methods including direct theodolite surveys, comparison of historical records with actual maps and evaluation of regular cartography from different dates Casassa and others, Rignot and othersanalysed ice elevation changes in most of the NPI and SPI glaciers, comparing all the available regular cartographyand with recently declassified Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM data obtained inrevealing a significant thinning rate for most of the ablation areas. The higher plateaus of the SPI were poorly represented in all the regular cartography, and therefore the estimation of thinning in the accumulation areas was inadequately characterised.

Nevertheless, using thinning rates obtained at an altitude close to the ELA of many glaciers, it was possible to extrapolate the amount of thinning to the accumulation areas. The longest record of ice elevation changes has been obtained for Glaciar O Higgins, where historical records and topographic maps available from have been compared. These indicate thinning rates in the range 37 and m a -1 between andwhich, compared with smaller rates measured during previous periods, suggest an acceleration of the thinning rates in recent years Casassa and others, Another glacier where ice elevation changes have been systematically measured is Glaciar Tyndall.

Since then, the same profile has been resurveyed several times with a theodolite Nishida and others,and more recently using a Global Positioning System GPSallowing an estimation of ice elevation changes during recent decades. Raymond and others In presshave compiled and reduced all available measurements to a common reference datum, homogenising the differences between methods, and determining an accelerated thinning rate of Using Digital Elevation Models DEMs obtained from available regular cartography, Rivera and Casassa compared the surface topography of the ablation area of the glacier between andobtaining an average surface thickening of 2.

This anomalous behaviour is well correlated with the unique state of advance of its southern tidewater front since Rivera and others, b and its northern freshwater front since Warren and others, SinceRignot and others have detected a thinning, in combination with a small retreat of the tidewater front. Dividing this value by the total ocean area of the world results in a contribution of 1. Rignot and othersanalysed volumetric changes for the SPI and NPI between andand obtained a total contribution to sea level rise similar to Aniya s estimations. However, when the ice elevation changes between and were considered, the result was more than doubled compared with the previous estimation, indicating that a thinning acceleration trend is affecting the whole region.

This contribution to sea level rise from Patagonia could be considered not significant when compared with other major contributing factors such as thermal expansion of the ocean or Antarctica and Greenland, however, the Patagonian icefields have been considered one of the areas where the wasting ice is proportionally much higher and faster than Alaska for instance Rignot and others,therefore, it is worth to examine the SPI in more detail in order to improve our understanding of a possible enhanced regional climate change. Actually, the P4G is only shared by two glaciers Viedma and Chicobecause the ice divide with Glaciar O Higgins is located approximately 18 km further north. The frontal tongue of the glacier at Brazo Chico of Lago O Higgins was first mapped by the Chilean-Argentinean boundary commission who visited the 18 40 area between and and produced several maps.

One of these maps was reproduced by Risopatron During the last Century, the lower tongue has retreated at low rates, with a decelerating trend over recent years Rivera and Casassa The ice basin is well defined for most of the glacier, with the exception of three places where the boundary is ambiguous due to the uniformity of the topography: Three main basins comprise the accumulation area. The ablation area is lightly covered by fluvio-glacial sediments, volcanic ash and debris. The altitude of the plateau in the accumulation area of Glaciar Chico fluctuates between and m. The ELA of the glacier was approximately located by Rivera and Casassa at an elevation between m.

All these datasets will be used in this thesis, in combination with data obtained from remotely sensed imagery, in order to account for the mass balance of the glacier over recent decades. In the background, Cerro Gorra Blanca m asl. However, not all the glacier variations are explained by the concept of negative mass balance. Most of the Patagonian glaciers have calving fronts, and therefore, their dynamic responses are also controlled by local factors like the geometry and bathymetry of the lakes or fjords into which they are calving. Calving glaciers have been considered more sensitive to climate changes than non-calving glaciers, and, once pushed out of equilibrium with the climate, they can undergo large aclimatic changes, controlled mainly by their calving dynamics.

In Patagonia, it is thought that the recent variations in glacier dynamics have been triggered by climate change, but have been enhanced by calving processes, thus accounting for the high thinning and retreat rates compared with other temperate glaciated areas of the Earth. In order to test this hypothesis, the variations experienced by a glacier with small or near absent calving activity will be analysed in detail, and compared with a degree-day factor mass balance model, forced with climatic stations and field data. By comparing the results of this combined method with a degree-day mass balance model, it will be possible to identify and distinguish climatically driven glacier responses from those initiated by dynamics components.

Significant previous research related to mass balance and glacier variations has been described, emphasizing the frontal variations and ice elevation changes experienced by the glaciers of the SPI and their contribution to sea level rise. The hypothesis and aims of this thesis have also been declared.

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Below is a brief description of the pueto chapters within the thesis. Data sets This chapter describes the available datasets used to carry out the research, including topographic information SRTM and previous cartography cor, data obtained from field campaigns GPS data, mass balance 23 45 measurements, meteorological observations and flr sensed imagery, including aerial photographs and satellite images. DEM generation and errors Aiseb chapter describes the puerfo employed to generate DEMs from the available datasets, their main sources of errors and the corrections applied to reduce them. These DEMs will be used in Chapter 4 to account for the ice elevation changes experienced by the glacier.

Glacier characteristics and variations This chapter includes the main results of this thesis regarding the physical characteristics, the glacial history of the region since the Little Ice Age LIA and the frontal, areal and ice elevation changes of Glaciar Chico. The fir of neighbouring glaciers are also included GAEA, O Higgins and Viedmain order to evaluate possible relationships between their variations and those recorded for Glaciar Chico. Regional climatology This chapter deals with the main climatological characteristics seeoing the Patagonian region on both sides of the SPI, with emphasis on the precipitation and temperatures changes observed from instrumental data available in the region.

The peurto of the data, methods of thw of partial time-series, and methods of analysis of series are 24 46 discussed. The precipitation and temperature series of several stations, mainly on the eastern side Saf seeking and date for the weekend in puerto aisen the SPI where Glaciar Chico is located, are analysed in detail. The results are compared with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation PDO index, in order to explain and contextualize the main observed changes with respect to large scale atmospheric-oceanic phenomena. Mass balance This chapter presents pierto degree-day model designed for Glaciar Chico, in order to estimate the main components of the mass balance of weekene glacier, based upon the available direct measurements of ablation and accumulation, as well as the temperature and precipitation variations experienced by nearby stations.

This model is compared with mass balance measurements obtained at the mast installed in at the base camp used during the Hielo Azul operations in the accumulation area of the glacier, as well as mass balance measurements carried out for other glaciers in Patagonia. Different future climatic scenarios are tested. Discussion, conclusions and future research This chapter summarizes the main findings of this thesis through discussion of the key results obtained from analysis and interpretation of the glacier variations with respect to the mass balance model and the climatological data series. A proposal for future research is also presented. Most of this historical cartography was catalogued by Martinic In some cases, this cartography can be very useful for determining the frontal position of a few glaciers Rivera and others, ; Casassa and others, These photographs were used to produce the first complete preliminary cartography for the area at a 1: Unfortunately, the topographic information is of relatively low quality, due to lack of control points on the ground.

Poor coverage of contour lines over the upper part of the glacier was obtained, due to a lack of stereoscopic vision 26 48 in the aerial photographs, resulting in a 1: Several spot heights are available from summits and other distinctive features in the accumulation area Table 2. With aerial photographs fromthe IGM made a second regular cartography at a 1: The emphasis was on contour line coverage, in particular of those areas with poor stereoscopic vision in the aerial photographs. Most of this cartography is confidential and has not been yet published, however, the IGM allowed the author restricted access to some of the data. This cartography was controlled with GPS measurements which were added to the national geodetic network, in order to provide a high quality link between them and the contour lines generated from the aerial photographs of the SPI IGM, personal communication.

The available regular cartography did not include all the SPI, but several glaciers were covered in both topographic charts. These common areas include both glacier accumulation and ablation zones. For Glaciar Chico, only a small area located at the frontal tongue of the glacier was covered by both surveys. A regular cartography at 1: Unfortunately, the contour lines covering the western side of the SPI are very unreliable because they exhibit concentric patterns and other artefacts that are very unlikely to be real. Contour intervals 50 m m for a few 50 m 25 m for a few areas glacier areas Restrictions No Yes 2. These data provided the most up-to-date, complete and accurate topographic coverage of Patagonia, and covered many areas that are still unmapped by traditional photogrammetric means.

SRTM data were originally acquired at a 30 m pixel size, but the declassified data in the public domain outside the U. A are only available at 90 m. These data cover most of the SPI, with the exception of small areas with steep slopes and southern aspects, where the interferometry procedure used in the SRTM elevation generation was unsuccessful Figure 2. The mast was fixed with cables to wood boards buried in snow, to prevent its collapse due to strong winds. Unfortunately, only navigator quality GPS receivers were used during this campaign, therefore, the mast site was only located with a precision of 90 m. However, a basic triangulation was performed using marks placed on two rock outcrops located at the margin of the ice.

From these marks the vertical and azimuth angles toward the mast were measured using a compass with inclinometer and telescope, mounted on a tripod. A 3 m snow pit was dug at the mast location, and snow samples were collected every 20 cm vertically with a cm 3 metal cylinder. Samples were weighed with a digital weight balance and analysed using a magnifying glass in order to determine ice crystal sizes. Snow temperatures were also measured every 20 cm with a digital thermometer equipped with a 5 cm probe. Snow stratigraphy was recorded for each level including the presence of ice layers, sediments, ice pipes and columns. At each stake the snow height and density were measured using a stainless steel snow sampling tube Model Federal also called Mt.

One snow pit was dug to a depth of 3. Snow densities and temperatures were measured with the same equipment and procedures used in the previous campaign. Snow stratigraphy was also observed and recorded. The snow accumulation in the winter was calculated based upon the mast and snow pit measurements. A low frequency 2. The base camp was again located at the site where the mast had been installed.